Organization relied on reciprocity and redistribution because these societies had no notion of market or money.
These early developments were followed by archaeological cultures that developed mostly around the coastal and Andean regions throughout Peru.
Their capital was at Chan Chan outside of modern-day Trujillo.
In the highlands, both the Tiahuanaco culture, near Lake Titicaca in both Peru and Bolivia, and the Wari culture, near the present-day city of Ayacucho, developed large urban settlements and wide-ranging state systems between 5 AD.
The Cupisnique culture which flourished from around 1000 to 200 BC along what is now Peru's Pacific Coast was an example of early pre-Incan culture.